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Preparing for a barn disaster

Quick facts

Prevent emergencies from becoming disasters. Whether it’s a fire, tornado or flood, having a plan can prevent or reduce the impacts of these events. Consider not only events around your house, but your barn as well.

General preparation

Consider what events may be the most devastating for your barn. Planning for these events will help prepare you for other events. For example, you can use a fire evacuation plan for tornadoes and floods.

Get the house ready first

Keep these items in or near your home and at an off-site location.

  • Human first aid kit
  • Emergency kit with food and water for three days
  • Important paperwork
  • Photos and written descriptions of all horses
  • Extra halters and lead ropes
  • Generator with enough fuel for three days
  • Working flashlights
  • Battery-powered radio

For more details on preparing your house, contact American Red Cross Twin Cities Chapter at 612-871-7676.

Emergency contacts

Put emergency contact information in an easy-to-find location and make sure that family, employees and clients know where it is. Contacts should include first responders, a veterinarian, your contact information, and others willing to assist during an emergency.

Horse first aid kits

You can purchase pre-assembled horse first aid kits. Learn how to create and use a basic first aid kit for your horse

Frightened animal behavior

Human safety is always the first priority. This includes the horse owner, family members, employees, boarders, visitors and you!

Frightened animals are unpredictable. Even the gentlest horse can become dangerous when frightened. Take specific actions to avoid getting in harm’s way. Learn more about unwanted behaviors and vices in horses.

Identifying the horses

Identifying horses is valuable if a horse is lost or stolen. If you have a horse without identifiable markings, this is particularly important. Identifying methods are a personal preference, but may also be a breed requirement. Registered horses may already have one or more of the following in place.

Permanent identifiers

  • Photographs and written descriptions
  • Brands
  • Tattoos
  • Microchips

Temporary identifiers

  • Washable paint
  • Etch hooves
  • Braid luggage tag with contact information into mane
  • Pastern bands

Evacuation plans

Goals of an evacuation plan

  • The plan quickly and safely moves animals and people out of the facility
  • Everyone engaged in the facility knows the plan and can carry it out in the absence of the owner
  • Brings awareness of potential emergencies and barn problems to horse owners
  • The plan is written out and easily accessible to others
  • All buildings must have multiple unblocked exits that people and animals can use

Developing an emergency evacuation plan

How will each horse be removed from the barn? 

  • Will they be led individually or herded?
  • In what order?
  • Can they be herded out the door to a holding pen? It may not be possible or safe to put a halter on a panicked horse.

Plans for an evacuation like a flood may be different than for a fire where there is less time.

Do you have spare halters and lead ropes located in an area away from the barn?

Having spare halters away from the barn can be beneficial (i.e. during a fire), especially if there are large numbers of horses on the property.

Are there horses that need to be handled differently?

Examples include stallions, foals or elderly horses.

Where will the horses go if the barn is damaged?

  • Ideally put horses in a safe paddock away from the barn.
  • During a fire, place horses far from the burning facility to avoid illness from breathing in smoke.
  • Is there space to separate horses (i.e. stallions)?
  • During an emergency, it’s common for a frightened or confused horse to try and return back to its stall, where it feels the safest.
  • Practice using all barn exits.

Will you be able to get food and water to the holding area?

Applies if they need to stay there for extended periods of time.

Can you trailer the horses if necessary?

  • Is there access to a functional truck and trailer?
  • Will the horses easily load?

Has everyone involved in the horse facility practiced the evacuation plan?

A lot can be learned from practicing an evacuation plan. From practicing you can improve your plan as necessary.

Do you know your neighbors or other horse owners in the area?

Neighboring horse owners can be a resource during an emergency.

Common horse barn emergencies



Severe weather

Severe weather is beyond your control. In Minnesota, severe weather includes; tornadoes, lightning, floods, droughts, or blizzards.


Animals are generally safer outside than inside. Horses in the barn are more likely to be hurt if the tornado damages the barn. Horses outside will have greater risk of being struck by lightning.


The tallest point in an area attracts lightning. The safest place for animals during a lightning storm is inside a building. If shelter is not possible, move your horses away from the tallest point and from standing water. Have a properly installed lightning rod and ground system for your barn.


To prepare for a long blizzard, ensure there is enough forage for the horses. You may need a generator and fuel to run necessary electrical equipment (heating systems, water pumps, and lighting).


Fortunately, in a drought situation there is time to prepare. Unfortunately, the length and severity of a drought is unpredictable. To best prepare for a drought:

  • Stockpile hay if possible, and identify backup sources for hay.
  • Identify alternate water sources.
  • This is important if you rely on surface water or a shallow well.
  • A horse's water intake needs to increase during hot, dry periods.
  • Be alert to fire hazards and increased fire risk.
  • Remove horses from pasture to maintain the health of the pasture and the horses.
  • Look for poisonous plants.
  • When feed is short, or horses are hungry, plants that horses normally avoid become a tempting source of feed. For more information on poisonous plants, see the University of Minnesota Extension book "Plants Poisonous or Harmful to Horse in the North Central United States."


Horse owners need a flood plan if in proximity to a low area, a stream, a river, or a floodplain. During a flash flood there is limited time, so preparation is key. To prepare for a flood consider:

  • Have an evacuation plan.
  • Watch for down power lines.
  • Have an electrical generator and supply of fuel ready on higher ground.
  • A generator is a critical piece of equipment to have during a power outage.
  • Look for debris before returning horses to paddocks and pastures.
  • Listen for reports of infectious disease outbreaks.
  • Outbreaks of diseases such as anthrax or Potomac Horse Fever can occur among animals in some areas of the country.
  • These outbreaks tend to occur during hot weather immediately following a flood.

Medical issues

Have emergency contact information and first aid kits accessible in the barn.

Severe human injury

Take a first aid and CPR training course. Check American Red Cross for dates and locations of classes.

Severe horse injury

Learn how to create and use a horse first aid kit.

Infectious disease outbreak

In the event of an infectious disease outbreak:

  • Have a quarantine area.
    • Be able to isolate infected horse(s). Consider this when planning a facility or emergency plan.
    • Use separate grooming equipment and tack for infected horses.
  • Have materials available to clean grooming equipment and tack.
    • Soak what you can in disinfectant solution. Don’t soak leather in bleach. Wash blankets when possible.
  • Prepare a bleach foot bath and hand sanitizer.
    • Have a 10 percent bleach foot bath at the barn door for everyone going into and out of the infected area.

Barn designs should include

  • Multiple exits
  • Use of curtains or firewalls
  • Fire resistant materials
  • Good ventilation
  • Hay storage separate from animal housing
  • Easy access to water
  • Quarantine areas
  • Located out of flood plain and other wet areas
  • Facility and ground cleanliness


Betsy Gilkerson Wieland, former Extension educator and John Shutske, former Extension specialist

Reviewed in 2018

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