- Round-bale feeder design affects waste and costs, but not safety, hay intake or herd weight in horses.
- Feeding your horse round bales without a feeder can result in:
- 57 percent wasted hay
- Weight loss
- Reduced hay intake
- Storage can cause 2 to 40 percent hay waste depending on the forage type, storage method, environment and length of storage.
- Covering round bales with plastic can reduce waste by half when storing bales outside.
- However, hay waste occurs during feeding and storing of round bales. Using a feeder and properly storing round bales can help reduce your hay waste.
Selecting a round-bale feeder for your horse
University of Minnesota researchers evaluated the effect of round-bale feeder design on:
- Hay waste
- Horse safety
- Hay intake and weight changes of horses
In general, the feeder designs evaluated either restricted access to hay or allowed more free access to hay.
Hay waste, hay intake, weight change and payback of nine round‐bale feeders and a control
|Feeder type||Hay waste, %||Hay intake, % BW||Herd weight change, pounds||Payback ($100/t), months|
Hay waste differs between round-bale feeder designs. But all feeders reduce hay waste compared to not using a feeder. Using a feeder resulted in less hay waste (5 to 33 percent) compared to not using a feeder (57 percent).
Feeders that restrict the horse’s access to hay cause less hay waste (5 to 11 percent) than feeders that provide greater access (13 to 33 percent). Feeders with greater access allow horses to put their whole head into the bale, pull hay out of the feeder and drop it on the ground. There’s no significant difference in waste between circular and non-circular feeders of this type.
Texas research shows hay waste is higher for horses fed round bales of coastal Bermudagrass (38 percent) and alfalfa (31 percent) without a feeder than using a ring feeder (2 and 9 percent, respectively).
Horse injuries are uncommon when using the tested feeders. Cosmetic rub marks on the face can occur with some feeders. Be aware that when using hay nets, the round bale can collapse, and horses may be able to stand and pass manure or urine on the remaining hay. You can use a net with another feeder to avoid this problem.
Hay intake and weight changes
Feeder design doesn’t affect the amount horses eat. In the 2010 round-bale feeder study, horses ate 2.0 to 2.4 percent of their body weight (BW) while eating from feeders. Horses ate less (1.3 percent BW) eating without a feeder.
Not using a feeder can result in herd weight loss. In the 2010 round-bale feeder study, the herds that didn’t use a feeder had an average herd (3 horses) weight loss of 225 pounds. Less eating and herd weight loss without a feeder was likely due to greater hay spoilage. Without a feeder the horses could trample and pass manure or urine on the hay.
The amount of hay waste, how long the feeder lasts and the feeder price affect how long it takes for a feeder to recover the initial expense. A cost comparison is available in the 2010 round-bale feeder study.
Reducing waste for round bales stored outside
Round bales normally have a higher waste from storage than small square bales, especially if the bales are outside. Storage can cause 2 to 40 percent hay waste depending on the forage type, storage method, environment and the length of storage.
Storing round bales outside on the ground is common and the most economical way to store hay. But it has the highest potential for waste due to weather.
Outdoor storage waste ranges between 5 and 35 percent depending on the amount of rain or snow, the storage site and original condition of the bale. Most waste occurs on the bottom of bales because of higher moisture levels and little air flow.
The outer 4-inch layer of a 6-foot diameter round bale contains about 25 percent of the total bale volume. Weather will most likely damage this layer if the bales are stored improperly or unprotected.
Storing hay inside can reduce storage waste by about two-thirds. Using a good plastic covering can reduce waste by one-half when storing bales outside.
- Make or buy a tightly packed bale.
- It will sag less and have less contact with the ground.
- It will shed more water.
- It will protect the inner part of the bale from weathering.
- Use plastic wrap, net wrap or plastic twine.
- Net-wrapped bales can reduce grass hay waste by 32 percent compared with twine bales stored outside.
- Plastic twine will resist weathering, insects and rodents better than natural fiber twines. Wind the twine tight and space it 6 to 10 inches apart for best storage.
- Store bales in a well-drained area.
- Reduce bottom hay waste by using a well-drained, 4- to 6-inch coarse rock base or wooden pallets.
- Never store bales under trees.
- Place a temporary cover over round bales you store outside. Keep this cover in place during the whole storage period.
McMillan, M.L., Wilson, K.R., Golden, W.C. and Rakowitz, L.A. 2010. Influence of Hay Ring Presence on Waste in Horses Fed Hay. The Texas Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 22:82-86.
Harrigan, T. M., and C. A. Rotz. 1994. Net, plastic, and twine wrapped large round bale storage loss. Appl. Eng. Agric. 10:188-194.
Buskirk, D., Zanella, A., Harrigan, T., Van Lente, J., Gnagey, L., and Kaercher, M. 2003. Large round-bale feeder design affects hay utilization and beef cow behavior. J. Animal Science. 81: 109-115.
National Research Council. 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Horses. Sixth Revised Edition.
Reviewed in 2021