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University of Minnesota Extension
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Extension is expanding its online education and resources to adapt to COVID-19 restrictions.

Growing small grains

Emergence and stand establishment

Evaluating winter wheat stands

In our guide to evaluating winter injury in winter wheat, we cover:

  • Optimal stand to maximize yield.
  • Winter kill and how it affects yield.
  • How to decide whether to replant.
  • What to do when spring arrives late.

Evaluating spring small grains stands

 How and why to evaluate wheat and barley stands, including:

  • Two different methods for taking a stand count.
  • The best leaf stage to count plants.

Factors affecting emergence

Soil crusting and emergence: what producers need to know

  • How crusting happens and its effects.
  • How to break soil crusts.
  • Guidance for seeded and unseeded fields.

  • Strategies and tools to use.

Growth and development

Spring wheat

Spring wheat growth and development guide

  • Why understanding spring wheat growth stages is essential for optimizing productivity.
  • Overview of the growth stage systems.
  • How to tell which Zadoks development stage your wheat plants are in, with detailed descriptions of each stage and a corresponding Feekes code.

Wheat growth model:

Provides growing degree day data for locations across Minnesota

Spring barley

Spring barley growth and development guide

  • Why understanding spring barley growth stages is essential for profitable production.
  • Overview of the growth stage systems.
  • How to tell which Zadoks development stage your barley plants are in, with detailed descriptions of each stage and a corresponding Feekes code.

View barley growing degree days and growth stages:

Provides data specific to northwestern Minnesota and North Dakota.

Nutrient management

Small grains nutrient needs

Fertilizer recommendations for small grains crops and calculators for wheat and barley.

Nitrogen

Understand how nitrogen behaves in soil, fertilizer rates by crop and best practices for soil testing.

Crop stress and damage

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