Food preservation FAQs
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General preservation questions
It's best to harvest produce early in the morning or during the coolest time of the day. To gain the best quality, it's also a good idea to freeze or can vegetables as soon as possible after they are picked. If you must hold them, keep them refrigerated. In research done at Pennsylvania State University, peas held 4 hours at room temperature before blanching lost 50 percent of their sugar content.
Kiwi can be frozen sliced, crushed or whole. It's high in acid and adding sugar will improve the flavor and help keep the fruit firm. Slices may be frozen individually by placing on a cookie sheet and freezing. When frozen, package in freezer bags. These slices are good for garnishes.
- For syrup pack: Use 3 cups sugar to 4 cups water.
- For dry sugar pack: Use 1 cup sugar to 1 quart kiwi slices. Toss to coat before packing.
- For crushed fruit: Use 1 cup sugar to 1 quart fruit (or to taste).
NOTE: Kiwi contains enzymes that break down protein. Therefore, frozen and fresh kiwi must be heated to boiling before it is used in gelatin dishes. Frozen kiwi can be used to tenderize meat. Small whole fruits may be frozen for this purpose.
Yes. Both saccharin and aspartame are comparable in flavor to sugar-sweetened frozen fruit. To sweeten fruit, use the sugar substitute in the amount of sugar you would normally use. Equivalent amounts are given on the package. Use the dry pack method rather than the syrup pack.
Yes, as long as the meat has been thawed in the refrigerator.
Refrigerator thawing: Allow 24 hours for every 5 pounds of meat. Once thawed, can the meat within 2 days. When ready to can, do not let thawed meat remain at room temperature for more than 2 hours.
Dried tomatoes in oil flavored with garlic and fresh herbs adds flavor to many recipes. The Food and Drug Administration requires food manufacturers making garlic or herbs-in-oil to acidify the product to prevent the growth of spores that cause botulism. Currently, there is no USDA researched tested recipe or process for acidifying tomato-in-oil mixtures at home for long term storage. If the tomato is not dried properly and moisture remains, one creates the perfect condition for Clostridium botulinum spores to germinate and grow. When oil is added, it acts as an oxygen barrier--another condition aiding growth.
Sometimes we can't create the same product we buy. Food processors have controlled recipes and conditions. Research done on home food preservation also tests for quality of the preserved product. Tomatoes dried packed in oil and garlic at home may result in a soggy and limp product. Instead, add oil, garlic and herbs to dried tomatoes just before preparing your favorite recipe or freeze for longer storage.
- Ingham, B. Drying food at home, Wisline program, August 20, 2012, University of Wisconsin.
- National Center for Home Food Preservation. Frequently asked questions..
- Marrs, B. University of Iowa Extension, AnswerLine Program Specialist, August 23, 2012, email correspondence.
- Feirtag, J. University of Minnesota, Food Safety Specialist, August 23, 2012, email correspondence.
Most frozen fruits have better texture and flavor when packed in sugar or syrup. Fruits that freeze especially well without sweetening include raspberries, blanched apples, blueberries, gooseberries and rhubarb.
Fruit can be canned with no sugar added. Use fully ripe, firm fruit for best flavor. The use of an antioxidant such as ascorbic acid will result in better color when no sugar is used.
Fruit being prepared for canning can be either hot packed or cold packed. Hot packing is preferred to extract the natural liquid and flavor from the fruit.
Unsweetened fruit can be packed in jars in the following ways: use water, the fruit's own juice or other unsweetened juice. It's better not to add artificial sweeteners before canning because they may change the flavor. If you want to sweeten your canned fruit with an artificial sweetener, add it when you serve it.
According to the National Center for Home Food Preservation (NCHP), using Splenda® instead of sugar should work as a sugar substitute for syrup recipes used in canning fruits because the product is heat-stable. Some people report an aftertaste when used in various products, so it's possible for flavor to change during storage.
In other cases, where sugar is important, like some preserves or pickled fruits, it is NOT recommended that Splenda® be substituted for sugar. You could use Splenda® as the optional sweetener in a jam or jelly made with a no-sugar needed pectin, such as Mrs. Wages™ Lite Home Jell® Fruit Pectin or Ball® No-Sugar Needed Pectin. With these low-methoxyl pectins, no sugar is required at all. Sugar substitutes can be added as desired simply for flavor. The package inserts with these pectins give instructions on when to add the sugar substitutes (usually after all the cooking and just before filling the jars).
NCHP has developed three canning recipes using Splenda®. 1) Pickled sweet cucumber slices, 2) pickled beets, 3) pickled cantaloupe.
Acid, sugar and pectin are required ingredients for jelly or jam products. As a result, the water bath process is acceptable for pepper jelly or jam. Most pepper jam/jelly recipes include vinegar, lemon juice, sugar and pectin.
ClearJel® and Therm-flo® are heat stable thickening agents. Other starches (such as cornstarch or tapioca) break down and result in a runny filling.
You may find these produce in some cooperatives and stores selling canning supplies. Kitchen Krafts and Kaufmans are online resources.
Following the recommended recipes by the National Center for Home Food Preservation should result in a safe and quality product. Here are some hints from Dr. Elizabeth Andress, Director of the Center:
- Slice the apples into thin slices, no more than ½" thick.
- Blanch the apples as directed, working in small batches. Blanching stabilizes the product and also helps to remove air trapped in the apple cells.
- Cook the sugar and ClearJel® mixture as directed in a large kettle. Rapidly heat and maintain even heat while adding apple slices.
- Don't increase headspace to try and prevent product over-flow; it won't work.
- Air trapped in the apple tissue may be a prime 'suspect' in product over-flow. As the air expands and leaves the cells and the jar, it carries product along with it. Effective blanching and using thin apple slices may help release trapped air.
- If you have tried everything to no avail, try switching apple varieties. Many things can influence the success of the product, including apple variety, growing conditions, length of storage, etc.
- Select mature dry beans.
- Sort out and throw away any defective or discolored beans.
- To rehydrate the beans, use one of the following methods:
- Place beans in a large pot, cover with water and let stand in a cool place for 12 - 18 hours and then drain.
- Or cover beans with boiling water in a saucepan and boil 2 minutes. Remove from heat and soak 1 hour and then drain.
- Cover the drained beans with fresh water and boil 30 minutes.
- Fill hot beans into hot jars, leaving 1-inch headspace.
- Add 1/2 teaspoon salt to pints or 1 teaspoon salt to quarts, if desired.
- Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Adjust lids and process.
- Process in a dial-gauge pressure canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a weighted-gauge pressure canner at 15 pounds pressure:
- Process pints for 75 minutes.
- Process quarts for 90 minutes.
Home-developed recipes, like soup, may be dangerous when canned unless research tested recipes are used.
There is no safe method for canning milk or milk products at home that yields an edible product. We suggest you can your tomato soup without milk or thickener and add the milk/cream or thickener when you are ready to serve it.
Sometimes a lid on the pressure canner will become "stuck" if the lid is not removed when the pressure has reached zero. NEVER try to hurry the cooling of any canner or force it open by pouring cold water over it. This "shock treatment" could cause the seals to loosen, the liquid to siphon off or the jars to break.
Reheating the canner and letting it return once again to zero pressure should release the vacuum. You can also use a rubber mallet, gently tapping around the rim to loosen the lid. Then, exert equal downward pressure while turning the cover. Never use a regular hammer. If the canner lid is stubborn due to a sticky sealing ring, it's time to replace the gasket. (Source: National Presto).
Dial gauges should be checked every year for accuracy. Other times when the gauge should be checked:
- After it's been dropped.
- If it has been submerged in water.
- If the gauge glass is broken or has fallen out.
- When any parts are rusty.
- When the pointer is not in the "0" block.
- Anytime you believe the gauge may not be accurate.
The Presto Company test dial gauges at no cost. Remove the gauge from the canner lid, wrap in newspaper and package in a small sturdy box. Send to: PRESTO - Service Department, 3925 North Hastings Way, Eau Claire, WI 54703-3703. In most cases, the gauge will be returned in a short amount of time. Check with your local County Extension Office to see if there is a local source for testing. For more information, see Testing dial pressure canner gauges.
No. One-piece, screw type canning lids are not designed or approved for home canning use. This type of lid is used in food processing as a hot-fill-hold process under very strict time and temperature controls. In home-canning a two-piece lid is needed to let the air escape during the boiling water or pressure canning process. A one-piece lid doesn’t allow the air to escape resulting in either blowing out the jar bottom or buckling of the lid.
(Source: Barb Ingham, University of Wisconsin, Tomatoes Tart and Tasty! home food preservation Wisline call. July 23, 2012).
Usually, it's 1 tablespoon bleach per 1 gallon of water. Not all bleaches are made from the same concentration. Check the label and follow the directions. Concentrated ultra bleach contains 6% sodium hypochlorite, rather than the standard 5.25% in "regular" bleach. Here's the recipe to make a sanitizer:
- Ultra (6%) bleach: 2½ teaspoons per gallon; ¾ teaspoon per quart.
- Regular (5.25%) bleach: 1 tablespoon per gallon; 1 teaspoon per quart.
Use recipes and procedures that were developed in 1994 or later.
- Cooperative Extension Service of the University of Georgia. (2015). So Easy To Preserve. 6th Edition.
- USDA. (2015). USDA's Complete Guide to Home Canning.
- Alltrista/Jarden Home Brands. (2009). The Ball Blue Book of Preserving.
- AnswerLine, University of Minnesota Extension and Iowa State University Extension. 1-800-854-1678. Provides research-based answers to your questions.
Reviewed in 2018