A new study from University of Minnesota Extension and the Minnesota Department of Transportation offers the most comprehensive look to date at how telecommuting in Minnesota has changed since the COVID-19 pandemic began.
In 2020, Minnesota saw a pivotal shift in the number of people working from home due to the pandemic. MnDOT wanted to capture Minnesota-specific data to understand who is working from home, how it is going, and what the future might look like.
"These findings can help us better understand and manage traffic patterns and volumes," said lead researcher Xinyi Qian, director of University of Minnesota Extension’s Tourism Center.
"Interestingly, the results contradict stereotypes regarding who is telecommuting, as there are many factors that may influence whether employers allow and whether employees take advantage of remote work."
Boomers telecommute most
While the image of an average telecommuter tends to skew young, Extension researchers found that Baby Boomers – the oldest among workers – telecommuted the most. The researchers surveyed more than 1,200 Minnesota employees and employers, in addition to conducting focus groups.
Looking forward, the state can expect the greatest levels of telecommuting from people with longer commutes, two-year college degrees and metro-area homes. The data serves as a snapshot in time; it has evolved since 2021 and will continue to change.
Whereas three-quarters of employees reported that their organizations will allow teleworking at least part-time post-COVID, not all employers are on board. Nearly a quarter of surveyed employers oppose all but the most minimal telecommuting going forward, even if work allows for it.
Researchers also uncovered notable differences in perception of telecommuting productivity. Employees rated both COVID-19 telework productivity and performance expectations higher than employers did. Qian and Extension educator Neil Linscheid used online surveys and focus groups to gain insight across multiple demographics and geographic locations.
"This information sets a baseline for understanding commuter traffic patterns, impacts on vehicle miles traveled, and also what the future of MnDOT’s workforce might look like relative to telecommuting," said MnDOT engineer Duane Hill, who proposed the study.
The research took place between spring and fall of 2021, as more employees returned to in-person work.
Concerns: slow internet, disparities among disabled
For some employers, telecommuting opens the door to recruiting from talent pools beyond the geographic limits that once were the norm. The research reveals challenges as well. Nearly 20 percent of respondents reported slow internet or similar connectivity problems.
"We also found people with disabilities are less likely to be able to telecommute, and that should prompt more questions," Qian said.
On the other hand, some findings didn’t deliver much of a surprise. Who are likeliest to telecommute? That distinction belongs to workers with at least a 46-minute each-way commute in congested traffic.
"Although workplace policies will continue to evolve, this research gives us a better glimpse into the future of teleworking in Minnesota," Hill said.
To learn more, visit MnDOT’s Office of Research & Innovation.
Other notable findings
- Greater Minnesota respondents were more likely to telecommute no more than one day a week post-pandemic, while Twin Cities respondents were more likely to telecommute two to three days a week. However, there was no difference between Greater Minnesota and the metro area if respondents were likely to commute four to five days a week.
- People with children at home are more likely to have formal post-pandemic telecommuting agreements with their employers.
- Roughly a quarter of employers may recruit completely remote talent from outside of Minnesota.
- Future of telecommuting:
- Half of employers support telecommuting one to five days a week post-pandemic.
- 14.6% will allow most employees to telecommute as often as they desire post-pandemic.